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Almqvist, Hanna and Carlevi, Maria (2008) Vattendraget på Kåbo golfbana. Other thesis, SLU.

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This degree project studied surface waters on Kåbo Golf Course in Uppsala, Sweden, with the aim of determining the status of the water and how it is affected by the activities of the golf club, and to obtain suggestions of measures to create better conditions for the water environment on and around the golf course. The project forms part of the environmental protection work of Kåbo Golf Club, which is working towards achieving environmental certification from the Swedish Golf Association (SGF). The study is based on literature studies and quantitative and qualitative field studies of water on the golf course, with the focus on environmental factors identified as being important for the golf industry and on strategic environmental goals developed by SGF. The number of open water bodies in the Swedish landscape has substantially declined during the past 200 years, so it is important to save those that remain. This study showed that the surface water at Kåbo Golf Course is an important element in the surroundings since the area contains few wetlands, which can be a habitat for large numbers of species. The stream and ponds on Kåbo Golf Course also have the important function of serving as water hazards in the game and adding difficulty and variety to the course. Since Kåbo Golf Club wants its surface waters to look aesthetically appealing, extensive algal growth and drying up of ponds during parts of the year are regarded as problems. A third important function of surface waters is that they can act as a nutrient trap by binding phosphorus and nitrogen. Our analyses showed that nutrient levels in the surface waters were high and that these nutrients generally originated from golfing activities, mainly the use of inappropriate fertiliser for the grass. The sediment had a low phosphorus and nitrogen content, suggesting that sedimentation is not a major nutrient sink. The extensive algal growth indicates that algae take up a large part of the nutrients. While the metal content of the water was not alarmingly high, some metals were present in elevated concentrations. Some, e.g. iron and copper, come from the fertiliser but the source of elevated concentrations of vanadium is unknown. Kåbo Golf Course is sprayed with fungicides, but at sampling three months after the last fungicide application, fungicide levels in surface waters were detectable but below guideline values. However point measurements were used here and continuous water sampling for nitrogen, phosphorus, metals and fungicides could provide a better picture of water status. The results obtained show that to create better conditions for the water environment on and around the golf course: - Large aquatic plants can be used along stream and pond edges to take up nutrients from the water and to reduce algal growth. - Water plants should be harvested and co-composted with grass clippings from greens and tees. - Frog and salamander protection zones within 100 m of surface water should be maintained. - To reduce the risk of nutrient leaching, a fertiliser that better fulfills the grass requirements could be used. Using a fertilizer strategy that is more adjusted to the seasonal nutrient requirements of the grass would also reduce the risk of leaching. - Drainage tubes from the greens could be cleaned to provide a closed system where leached nutrients can be recycled. - Pond walls should be sealed with Bentonite clay.

Item Type: Thesis (Other)
Keywords: Kåbo golfklubb, golfbanor, dammar, vattenkvalitet, kväve, fosfor, järn, vanadin, fungicider, miljödiplom
Subject (faculty): Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science > Dept. of Soil and Environment
Divisions: SLU > Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences
Depositing User: Anne Olsson
Date Deposited: 07 Nov 2008
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2015 10:08
URI: http://ex-epsilon.slu.se/id/eprint/2869

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